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Modals are auxiliary verbs used to give a judgement or interpretation about an action or

They can be classified in


can   could   may   might   must  will   would   shall   should


SEMI MODALS (they do not follow all the "full modal" rules)

need     dare     have to       ought to

Modal rules
  1. they do not have infinitive forms or the 3rd person 's' or tenses
  2. the negative is formed by adding not / n't to the verb
  3. the question is formed by inverting the modal and the pronoun
  4. they are followed by the infinitive form without to


have got to is an alternative in spoken informal English. For the negative we tend to say We don't have to go, not we haven't, got to go.

Have got to and have to both express obligation .
Have got to refers to an obligation now or soon.
It's often reduced to gotta go to  when we speak. especially in American English.
I've got to go now. Bye!



Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. The underlined words can be
written as subject + modal + verb (or modal + subject + verb in
questions). In some sentences, more than one modal is possible.
1 I promise to phone you next week.
I will/I'll phone you next week.
2 At the age of nine, he still didn't know how to read.
At the age of nine, he still couldn't read.

3 It's essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning.
4 Are you able to come with me tonight?
5 It's not a good idea for you to work so hard.
6 It's possible that they'll be here soon.
7 Why don't we go and see a film tonight?
8 He said that he intended to write to me soon.
9 Is it possible for me to sit here?
10 He refuses to give me an answer.
11 It's not necessary for you to apologize.
12 Am I allowed to smoke in here?
13 He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve.
14 I want to help you but I'm not able to.
15 I think it's a good idea for me to stay in tonight: I've got a lot of work to
16 I don't know who she is but it's possible that she's Rick's sister.
17 Do not tell him any of this: it's vital that it remains a secret
18 I intend to finish this essay before I go to bed.
19 It's 7 0' clock. I assume that Clare will be here soon.
20 He's in but he's not answering the phone. I'm sure that he's asleep.